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sábado, 3 de outubro de 2015

100 idioms (expressões idiomáticas) mais frequententemente usadas na língua inglesa


Idiomatic expressions have long played an important role in the English language. In fact, the use of idioms is so widespread that an understanding of these expressions is essential to successful communication, whether in listening, speaking, reading, or writing.
As expressões idiomáticas tem tido um longo papel importante no idioma Inglês. Na verdade, o uso de expressões idiomáticas é tão generalizada que a compreensão dessas expressões é essencial para o sucesso da comunicação, seja ouvindo, falando, lendo ou escrevendo.


The student may learn grammar and, with time, acquire adequate vocabulary, but without a working knowledge of such idioms as above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., even the best student's speech will remain awkward and ordinary.
O aluno pode aprender a gramática e, com o tempo, adquirir vocabulário adequado, mas sem um conhecimento prático de tais expressões como above all, to get along, on the whole, to look up, etc., mesmo melhor discurso do aluno permanecerá estranho e comum.

Of course, the idioms selected for study should have practical value and be within the student's ability to comprehend. Such expressions as to set the world on fire or to wash one's dirty laundry in public may be very colorful, but they do little to help the student achieve fluency in English.
Naturalmente, as expressões idiomáticas selecionadas para o estudo deve ter valor prático e estar dentro da capacidade do aluno de compreender. Tais expressões como
to set the world on fire or to wash one's dirty laundry in public podem ser muito coloridas, mas elas fazem pouco para ajudar o aluno a alcançar fluência em Inglês.

Idiom
Expressão idiomática
A group of words with a meaning that is different from the individual word.
É um grupo de palavras com um significado que é diferente do significado individual de cada palavra.

never mind
esquecer

Hang on
esperar

a shortcut
um atalho

keep an eye on something
ficar de olho em alguma coisa


100 Most Frequently Used English Idioms


1. about to (do something)
prestes a, para

To be on the point of doing something.
Estar no ponto de fazer alguma coisa.

I was about to leave when the phone rang.
Eu estava prestes a sair quando o telefone tocou.

2. according to (someone or something)
conforme, de acordo

As said or told by someone, in agreement with something, in the order of something, in proportion to something
Como dito ou falado por alguém, em concordância com alguma coisa, em ordem de alguma coisa, em proporção a alguma coisa.

According to our teacher, there will be no class next week. 
Conforme nosso professor, não haverá aula na próxima semana.

We did everything according to
the terms of our agreement.
Nós fizemos tudo de acordo com os termos do nosso acordo.

3. account for (something)
Explicar, prestar contas de

To provide an explanation or answer for something.
Fornecer uma explicaçao ou resposta para alguma coisa.

The bad weather accounts for the fact that few people came to the meeting.
O mau tempo explica o fato de que poucas pessoas vieram para a reunião.

4. after all
Afinal, afinal de contas, não obstante

Considering the fact that something happened, something that is usually assumed
Considerando o fato de que algo aconteceu, algo que é geralmente assumido.

You don't need to phone him. After all, he never phones you.
Você não precisa telefonar para ele. Afinal, ele nunca lhe telefona.

5. all of a sudden
de repente

Suddenly, without advance warning.
De repente, sem aviso prévio.

All of a sudden it became cloudy and began to rain.
De repente, ficou nublado e começou a chover.

6. as a matter of fact
De fato, na realidade

actually
na realidade

As a matter of fact, we have been to the history museum many times.
Na realidade, nós curtimos a história museu muitas vezes.

7. as far as
tanto quanto, até, tanto .. quanto.

To the extent or degree of something.
Extensão ou grau de alguma coisa

As far as I know the movie will start in a few minutes.
Tanto quanto eu sei, o filme vai começar em alguns minutos.

8. as for
Como, quanto a

With regard to, concerning.
Em relação a, concernente, relativamente

As for me, I think that I will return home now.
Quanto a mim, eu acho que vou voltar para casa agora.


9. as if (as though)
Como se

In the same way that something would be.
Da mesma maneira que alguma coisa seria.

The drink tastes as if it were made with orange juice.
O gosto da bebida era como se ela tivesse sidofeita de suco de laranja.

It seemed as if the whole town came to the concert. 
Pareceu como se a cidade toda viesse ao concerto.


10. as long as
enquanto, tão longo quanto, contanto.

Provided that, on condition that.
Fornecer isso, na condição que.

As long as you promise to be careful you can borrow my car.
Contanto que você prometa ser cuidadoso, você pode tomar emprestado meu carro.


11. as soon as
logo, assim que, tão logo

Just after something, when.
Logo após alguma coisa, quando.

I phoned my friend as soon as I finished dinner. 
Eu liguei para o meu amigo, assim que eu terminei o jantar.


12. as to
quanto a, a respeito de

With regard to, according to.
Com relação a, de acordo com.

As to your question, I will answer it tomorrow.
Quanto à sua pergunta, vou respondê-la amanhã.

The players were put into groups as to their ability. 
Os jogadores foram colocados em grupos relacionados a (conforme) sua capacidade.

13. as well (likewise)
também

In addition, also, too.
Além disso, também, demasiado

I plan to take a computer course this summer as well. 
Eu pretendo fazer um curso de computador este verão também.


14. as well as (someone or something)
bem como (alguém ou algo), bem como

In addition to someone or something.
Em acréscimo para alguém ou algo.

Please bring your swimming suit as well as your towel.
Por favor, traga o seu traje de banho, bem como a sua toalha.


15. back and forth
vai e volta, para frente e para trás

Backwards and forwards, first one way and then the other way.
Para frente e para trás, primeiro um lado e depois para o outro lado.

The argument went back and forth before the judge made a decision. 
O argumento avançava e voltava antes que o juiz tomou uma decisão.


16. better off
melhor, em melhor condição

To be in a better situation than before.
Estar em uma situação melhor do que antes.
In a better or more prosperous condition.
Em uma condição melhor ou mais próspera.

My friend would be better off if he sold his old car and bought a new one.
Meu amigo estaria melhor se ele vendesse seu carro velho e (tivesse) comprado um novo.

17. break down (something)
demolir, quebrar, desmembrar, avariar (algo)

To divide something into parts, to separate something into simpler substances.
Dividir algo em partes, separar algo em substâncias mais simples.

We tried to break down the problem for further study.
Nós tentamos desmembrar o problema para o estudar mais.

The sugar began to break down soon after it was swallowed. 
O açúcar começou a dissolver logo depois que ele foi ingerido.

18. break up
romper, dispersar, fragmentar

To separate, to divide into groups or pieces, to put an end to something.
Separar, dividir em grupos ou pedaços, pôr um fim em algo.

Nobody wanted to break up their groups. 
Ninguém queria terminar seus grupos.

We usually break up into small groups during our class. 
Nós geralmente nos dividimos em pequenos grupos durante nossa aula.


19. by the way
a propósito

Incidentally.
incidentalmente, eventualmente

By the way, could you please bring your laptop computer tomorrow.
A propósito, você poderia por favor trazer seu computador portátil amanhã.

20. carry out (something)
executar, cumprir, realizar, defender (algo)

To put something into action, to accomplish something, to do something.
Colocar algo em ação, realizar algo, fazer alguma coisa.

The scientist wanted to carry out several experiments before discussing the new medicine. 
O cientista queria realizar vários experimentos antes de discutir o novo medicamento.


21. come on!

Please, hurry, go faster.

Come on, I only have a few minutes before I must go.
Come on, stop doing that. 

22. come up

To happen unexpectedly

I will not be able to go to the party if something else comes up. 

23. come up with (something)

To produce or find a thought/idea/answer.

I tried to come up with a name for the new magazine. 

24. with (something)

To be concerned with something, to take action about something.

We will deal with the boxes tomorrow. 

25. end up (doing something or going somewhere)

To do something that one had not planned to do, to go somewhere one had not planned to go.

We ended up going to a restaurant after the movie last night. 

26. figure out (someone or something)

To try to understand someone or something, to solve something.

I finally figured out how to use the new DVD player. 

27. fill in (something)

To write words in blank spaces.

Please fill in this form and give it to the receptionist. 

28. find out (something)

To learn or discover something.

My mother is angry at me because she found out that I had quit my French class. 

29. first of all

The very first thing.

First of all we prepared the garden and then we planted the seeds. 

30. for good

Permanently.

The city will close the public swimming pool for good next week. 

31. for sure

Without doubt, certainly, surely.

I will go to the movie with you for sure next week. 

32. get back to (something)

To return to something.

I was happy to get back to my work after my holiday. 

33. get into (something)

To become interested or involved in something.

I do not want to get into an argument with my friend.
We will get into the details of the plan tomorrow. 

34. get into (somewhere)

To enter somewhere.

My friend wants to get into a good university.
I bumped my head as I was getting into the car. 

35. get out of (somewhere)

To leave somewhere, to escape from somewhere.

I want to hurry and get out of my house. 

36. get rid of (something)

To give or throw something away, to sell or destroy something, to make a cold or fever disappear.

I bought a new television set so I want to get rid of the old one. 

37. get through (something)

To complete something, to finish something.

My friend is having trouble getting through her final exams.
I have much reading that I must get through before tomorrow. 

38. go ahead
continuar, ir em frente, manter, seguir

To begin to do something.
Let`s go ahead and start now. We can`t wait any longer. 

39. go on

To continue.

The game will probably go on for an hour after we leave. 

40. go over (something)

To examine or review something.

The accountant will go over the books tomorrow.
We plan to go over that question tomorrow. 

41. go through (something)

To discuss something, to look at something, to do something.

The teacher decided to go through the exercise before the test. 

42. go with (something)

To choose one thing rather than another.
Escolher uma coisa em detrimento de outra.

We decided to go with the small rental car rather than the large one. 

43. hang out (somewhere/with someone)

To spend one`s time with no great purpose, to spend leisure time with friends.

Recently my friend has been hanging out with a group of people who are not a good influence on him. 

44. have (something) to do with (something)

To be about something, to be on the subject of something, to be related to something.

The book has something to do with cooking but I am not sure if you will like it.
That problem has nothing to do with me. 

45. hold on

To wait a minute, to stop, to wait and not hang up the phone.

Please hold on for a minute while I lock the window. 

46. in a way

To a certain extent, a little, somewhat.

In a way I want to go to the new restaurant but in a way I don`t really care. 

47. in case

If, if something should happen.

I will take my umbrella in case it rains. 

48. in common

Shared together or equally, in use or ownership by all.

I had nothing in common with the other members of the class. 

49. in detail

Giving all the details, item by item.

The saleswoman explained about the new product in detail. 

50. in effect

For practical purposes, basically.

The man's silence was in effect a way of disagreeing with the other people in the meeting. 

51. in fact

Actually, the truth is.

The man has been to China before. In fact he has been there three times. 

52. in favor of (someone or something)

To approve or support someone or something.

Everybody is in favor of the new police chief.
My company is not in favor of changing our holiday schedule. 

53. in general

In most situations or circumstances.

In general, most of the people in our apartment are happy with the new manager. 

54. in order to

For the purpose of.

They have decided to close down the school for the summer in order to do some major repairs. 

55. in other words

In a different (usually more direct) way.

In other words, if you do not finish the assignment by Wednesday you will not pass the course.

56. in place

In the proper place or location.

Everything in the room was in place when we arrived for the meeting. 

57. in some ways

In some unspecified way or manner, by some unspecified means.

In some ways I know what my friend means but in some ways I do not. 

58. in terms of (something)

With regard to something.

In terms of our agreement with the other company we were not allowed to sell the products online. 

59. in time

Early enough.

I did not come home in time to meet my cousin. 

60. keep (someone or something) in mind

To remember and think about someone or something.

I told my co-workers to keep the new starting time for work in mind. 

61. kind of

Somewhat, more or less, moderately.
I was kind of tired when I arrived home last night. 

62. look for (something)

To try to find something, to hunt/search for something.

My friend has been looking for her credit card all morning but she can`t find it. 

63. look up (something)

To search for something in a dictionary or other book.

I will look up my friend's name in the telephone book. 
I looked up the word in the dictionary. 

64. make a difference

To cause a change in a situation.

It does not make a difference whether our boss comes to the meeting or not. 

65. make sense

To seem reasonable.

His new proposal really does make sense. 

66. make sure

To make certain, to establish something without a doubt.

I want to make sure that my friend is going to meet me tomorrow. 

67. more or less

Somewhat, to some extent.

I more or less have decided to study business next year. 

68. no matter

Regardless.

No matter how hard that I try, my piano teacher is never satisfied. 

69. not at all

Certainly not.

I am not at all happy with my new computer. 

70. of course

Certainly, definitely, naturally.

Of course you can use my car if you want to. 

71. on the other hand

However, in contrast, looking at the opposite side of a matter.

He is very intelligent but on the other hand he is very lazy and always gets low marks at school. 

72. on time

At the scheduled time, exactly at the correct time, punctually.

Our train arrived exactly on time. 

73. once again

Again, one more time, once more.

I tried once again to phone my boss at his home . 

74. open to (something)

To be agreeable to learn or hear about new ideas or suggestions.

Most members of the class were open to the teacher's ideas. 

75. pick up (something)

To get or receive something.

I will pick up my dry cleaning tomorrow. 
I picked up a copy of the newspaper at the station. 

76. point out (someone or something)

To explain or call attention to someone or something.

My teacher was very kind when she pointed out the mistakes that I had made. 

77. put out (something)

To produce or make something (a product/brochure/report/CD/movie/paper).

The company puts out a newsletter every month for the employees. 

78. regardless of (something)

Without considering or thinking about something, without regard to something.

Regardless of the weather we are going to go fishing tomorrow morning. 

79. right away

Immediately.
Imediatamente.

I forgot to bring my book but I will go home and get it right away.

80. rule out (someone or something)


To decide against or eliminate someone or something.

The police ruled out the man as a possible bank robber. 
We decided to rule out Monday as the day to have our meeting. 

81. run into (something - a fact/trouble/problems/difficulty)

To experience something, to encounter something.

The mechanic ran into trouble when he was fixing my car. 
I ran into some interesting facts when I was researching my essay. 

82. set up (something)

To establish something, to provide the money for something.

The newspaper company provided the money to set up the new travel magazine. 
The company set up a unique situation to test the new product. 

83. show up

To appear, to arrive, to be present.

What time did your friend show up for the party? 

84. so far

Until now.

So far no one has entered the speech contest at the television station. 

85. so to speak

As one might or could say, this is one way to say something.

We had a good time at the restaurant, so to speak, although the service was not very good. 

86. sort of (something)

To be almost something, to be similar to something, to be not quite something.

Did you finish cleaning the kitchen?
Sort of, but not really. 

87. stick with (something)

To continue doing something, to not quit something.

My brother has been able to stick with his trumpet lessons since he was a child. 

88. take advantage of (someone or something)

To use someone or something for one's own benefit.
We took advantage of the beautiful weather and went to the beach. 


89. take care of (someone or something)

To look after or give attention to someone or something.
You should take care of your health or you will become sick. 

90. take out (something)

To remove something from somewhere, to extract something.

The teacher told us to take out our books. 
I took out some onions from the refridgerator. 

91. take over (something)

To take control of something, to take command of something.

The large company wants to take over some of the small companies in our area. 

92. take place

To happen, to occur.

The soccer game took place on the coldest day of the year. 

93. to the extent that

To the degree that, in so far as.

I plan to provide information about the new company policy to the extent that I am familiar with it. 

94. turn in (something)

To give something to someone, to hand something to someone.

I arrived at school early so that I could turn in my essay. 

95. turn out

To be found or known, to prove to be true.

It turned out that more people came to the party than we expected. 

96. up to

Until, as far as a certain point, approaching a certain point.

Up to last week I had never been inside a bowling alley. 
There were probably up to thirty people at the meeting. 

97. up to (someone) to decide/do (something)

To be responsible to choose or decide something.

It is up to the company president to decide when the meeting will start. 

98. used to

Accustomed to.

My friend is not used to living in such a big city. 

99. with respect to (something)

Referring to something, concerning something.

I do not know what the company will do with respect to the old computer system. 

100. work out (for the best)
Terminar, resolver, exercitar-se, acabar da menhor maneira possível

To end successfully.
Terminar bem.

I hope that everything will work out for my friend when she moves to London next week.
Eu espero que tudo acabe bem para meu amigo quando ela se mudar para Londres na próxima semana.

[for something] to turn out all right in the end.
[algo] dar certo no final.

Don't worry. Everything will work out. This will work out. Don't worry.
Não se preocupe. Tudo vai dar certo. Isto vai dar certo. Não se preocupe.

[for someone] to do a program of exercise.
[alguém] fazer um programa de exercício.

I work out at least twice a week. I need to work out more often.
Eu faço exercícios, pelo menos, duas vezes por semana. Eu preciso me exercitar com mais freqüência.



Which idioms to learn and which to teach is important for both students and teachers. While this decision can be made in a random manner, a better way is to examine a specific body of English material and decide which idioms are the most frequently found. This type of collection of material is called a corpus (the plural for corpus is corpora).

There are many corpora available. These include the Collins Cobuild Corpus in the United Kingdom and the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE) in the United States. The MICASE corpus is a collection of recorded speech from the University of Michigan in the United States. The material includes lectures, casual office discussions and study group sessions in various faculties of the university. They are taken from one particular style or purpose of naturally occurring English. Different idioms will be used in a conversation, a novel, a news report or a scientific paper. Any list of idioms will be different depending on the English corpus that is used to compile that list. However, most corpora contain idioms that are common to all corpora and any list that is used will be composed of idioms that are often found in much English language material.

The MICASE corpus is easily available to anyone with Internet access and it is the corpus which was used to produce this list of the 100 Most Frequently Used English Idioms. The idioms that occur in this list of frequently used idioms are the most frequent idioms that are found in an academic setting in the United States. 


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