quarta-feira, 14 de novembro de 2012

Lição 10: Verbos irregulares:


Lista dos verbos irregulares: na lista adiante se encontram todos os verbos irregulares ingleses. Nela se identifica o infinitivo e o presente (ambos tem a mesma forma, salvo que o infinitivo vem precedido da partícula “to”, assim como o pasado simples e o participio. Em alguns casos, o verbo tem duas possíveis formas no pasado ou no futuro que aparecem indicadas.

Em outros casos, o verbo não tem infinitivo (são alguns verbos modais e na tabela aparecem sem a partícula “to”). Estes verbos não seguem uma regra determinada e por isso debemos memorizá-los. Por serem numerosos, entendemos que o mais prático é ir estudando-os pouco a pouco (alguns deles raramente se utilizam).


Infinitivo/presente    Significado                 Forma pasada           Participio
                                  
To abide                      habitar, suportar         abode                          abode
To arise                       surgir                           arose                            arisen
To awake                    despertar                     awoke/awaked           awoken/awaked

To be                           ser/star                         was                              been
To bear                        aguentar                      bore                             borne / born
To beat                        golpear                        beat                             beaten
To become                  tornar-se                      became                        become
To befall                     ocontecer                    befell                           befallen
To beget                      gerar                            begot                           begotten
To begin                      Começar                     began                          begun
To behold                   observar                      beheld                         beheld
To bend                      dobrar                         bent                             bent
To bereave                  desolar                        bereaved                     bereaved/bereft
To beseech                  implorar                      besought                     besought
To bet                          apostar                        betted/bet                   betted/bet
To bid                         ofertar                         bade/bid                      bidden/bid
To bind                       vincular, atar               bound                          bound
To bite                         morder                        bit                                bitten
To bleed                      sangrar                        bled                             bled
To blow                      soprar                          blew                            blown
To break                      quebrar, romper          broke                           broken
To breed                     criar, reproduzir          bred                             bred
To bring                      trazer                           brought                       brought
To broadcast               retransmitir                 broadcast                    broadcast
To build                      construir                      built                             built
To burn                       queimar                       burned/burnt               burned/burnt
To burst                      explodir                      burst                            burst
To buy                       comprar                       bought                         bought

Can                             poder                          could                           be able
To cast                        lançar/moldar              cast                              cast
To catch                      pegar                           caught                         caught
To chide                      censurar, ralhar           chid                             chidden
To choose                   escolher                       chose                           chosen
To cleave                    cortar/romper              clove/cleft                   cloven/cleft
To cling                       agarrar                          clung                           clung
To clothe                     vestir                           clothed/clad                clothed/clad
To come                      vir                                came                            come
To cost                        custar                          cost                             cost
To creep                      rastejar/arrastar-se    crept                            crept
To crow                      cantar, exulatar           crowed/crew               crowed
To cut                          cortar                           cut                               cut

To dare                       desafiar, ousar            dared/durst                 dared/durst
To deal                        tratar                           dealt/delt                    dealt/delt
To dig                         cavar                           dug                              dug
To do                          fazer                           did                              done
To draw                      desenhar                     drew                            drawn
To dream                    sonhar                         dreamed/dreamt         dreamed/dreamt
To drink                      beber                           drank                           drunk
To drive                      conduzir                      drove                           driven
To dwell                     habitar                      dwelled/dwelt              dwelled/dwelt

To eat                          comer                          ate                               eaten

To fall                         cair                              fell                               fallen
To feed                       alimentar                     fed                              fed
To feel                         sentir                           felt                              felt
To fight                       lutar                             fought                         fought
To find                        encontrar                     found                          found
To flee                         escapar, fugir              fled                             fled
To fling                       atirar, lançar                flung                           flung
To fly                          voar                             flew                             flown
To forbear                   tolerar, evitar              forbore                        forborne
To forbid                    proibir                         forbade                       forbidden
To forget                     esquecer                      forgot                          forgotten
To forgive                   perdoar                       forgave                       forgiven
To forsake                   abandonar                   forsook                       forsaken
To freeze                     congelar                      froze                            frozen

To get                          obter                            got                               got
To gild                        dourar                         gilded/gilt                   gilded/gilt
To gird                        zombar                        girded/girt                  girded/girt
To give                       dar                              gave                            given
To go                          ir                                 went                            gone
To grind                      moer                            ground                        ground
To grow                      crescer                         grew                            grown

To hang                       pendurar                     hanged/hung               hanged/hung
To have                      haver/ter                    had                             had
To hear                        ouvir                            heard                           heard
To hew                        talhar                           hewed                         hewed/hewn
To hide                       esconder                     hid                               hidden
To hit                          acertar, atingir             hit                                hit
To hold                       segurar                        held                             held
To hurt                        ferir, machucar           hurt                             hurt

To keep                       manter                         kept                             kept
To kneel                      ajoelhar-se                   knelt                            knelt
To knit                        tecer, tricotar              knit                              knit
To know                     saber                            knew                           known

To lay                         colocar, lançar, por  laid                              laid
To lead                        guiar, conduzir           led                               led
To lean                        inclinar                        leaned/leant                leaned/leant
To leap                        saltar, pular                 leaped/leapt                leaped/leapt
To learn                       aprender                      learned/learnt              learned/learnt
To leave                      deixar                          left                              left
To lend                       emprestar                    lent                              lent
To let                           deicar, permitir           let                                let
To lie                           mentir, deitar-se         lay                               lain
To light                       acender                       lighted/lit                    lighted/lit
To lose                        perder                          lost                              lost

To make                      fazer, produzir            made                           made
May                            poder                          might                          ----
To mean                      significar                     meant / ment               meant/ment
To meet                       encontrar, reunir-se     met                              met
To mow                      cortar, ceifar               mowed                        mowed/mown
Must                           obrigação, ter de       had to                         ----

Ought                         deber, convir             ----                               ----

To pay                        pagar                           paid                             paid
To put                         colocar                        put                               put

To read                       ler                                read / red                    read / red
To rend                       rasgar                          rent                              rent
To rid                          librar, eliminar rid                               rid
To ride                        montar (a cavalo)        rode                             ridden
To ring                        cercar, rodear              rang                             rung
To rise                         subir                            rose                             risen
To run                         correr                           ran                               run

To saw                        serrar                           sawed                          sawed/sawn
To say                         dizer                           said                             said
To see                         ver                              saw                             seen
To seek                       buscar                          sought                         sought
To sell                         vender                         sold                             sold
To send                       enviar                          sent                             sent
To set                          establecer, pôr set                               set
To sew                        costurar                       sewed                          sewed/sewn
To shake                     tremer, agitar              shook                          shaken
Shall                           dever (auxiliar futuro)   should                         ----
To shear                      tosquiar                       sheared / shore            sheared/shorn
To shed                       derramar, verter          shed                            shed
To shine                      brilhar                          shone                           shone
To shoe                       calçar                           shoed/shod                 shoed/shod
To shoot                      atirar, disparar shot                             shot
To show                      mostrar                        showed                       showed/shown
To shrink                     escolher                       shrank                         shrunk
To shut                        fechar, cerrar               shut                             shut
To sing                        cantar                          sang                             sung
To sink                        afundar                       sank                             sunk
To sit                           sentar-se                      sat                               sat
To slay                        matar, destruir            slew                             slain
To sleep                      dormir                         slept                            slept
To slide                       deslizar, escorregar     slid                              slid
To sling                       lançar, atirar                slung                           slung
To slink                       escapulir                      slunk                           slunk
To slit                          cortar                           slit                               slit
To smell                      cheirar                         smelled/smelt              smelled/smelt
To smite                      golpear                        smote                          smitten
To sow                        semear                         sowed                         sowed/sown
To speak                     falar                             spoke                           spoken
To speed                     acelerar                       speeded/sped              speeded/sped
To spell                       soletrar, escrever         spelled/spelt                spelled/spelt
To spend                     gastar                          spent                           spent
To spill                        derramar                     spilled/spilt                 spilled/spilt
To spin                        girar, dar voltas          spun                            spun
To spit                          cuspir, lançar               spat                             spat
To split                        dividir                         split                             split
To spread                    espalhar, estender       spread                         spread
To spring                     saltar, pular                 sprang                         sprung
To stand                      suportar, levantar-se   stood                           stood
To steal                       robar                            stole                            stolen
To stick                       fincar, meter               stuck                           stuck
To sting                       picar                            stung                           stung
To stink                       feder                           stank/stunk                 stunk
To strew                      espalhar, disseminar   strewed                       strewed/strewn
To stride                     andar, galgar               strode                          stridden
To strike                      atacar, golpear            struck                          struck
To string                     amarrar, esticar           strung                          strung
To strive                      lutar, esforçar-se         strove                          striven
To swear                     jurar                             swore                          sworn
To sweep                    varrer                           swept                          swept
To swell                      inchar                          swelled                       swelled/swollen
To swim                      nadar                           swam                           swum
To swing                     balançar                      swung                         swung

To take                        pegar, tomar               took                             taken
To teach                      ensinar                        taught                          taught
To tear                         rasgar                          tore                              torn
To tell                          dizer                            told                             told
To think                      pensar                          thought                       thought
To thrive                     prosperar                     thrived/throve             thrived/thriven
To throw                     jogar, atirar                 threw                           thrown
To thrust                     empurrar, cavar           thrust                           thrust
To tread                      pisar, andar                 trod                             trodden / trod

To understand            comprender                 understood                 understood
To undertake              emprender, aceitar      undertook                   undertaken

To wake                      acordar                        waked/woke               waked/woken
To wear                       usar, vestir                  wore                            worn
To weave                    tecer, entrelaçar          wove                           woven
To weep                      chorar                          wept                            wept
To wet                         molhar, banhar            wetted/wet                 wetted/wet
Will                             querer (auxiliar futuro)  would                         ----
To win                        ganhar                         won                             won
To wind                      ventar, serpentear       wound                         wound
To wring                     torcer, espremer          wrung                          wrung
To write                      escrever                       wrote                           written

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