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domingo, 12 de março de 2017

Resumo Gramatical inglês nível básico

PRESENT OF VERB TO BE


FORMA AFIRMATIVA        FORMA NEGATIVA      FORMA INTERROGATIVA


I AM   yo soy                                      I  AM NOT   yo no soy                           AM  I  ?   soy  yo?
YOU ARE   tu eres                        YOU ARE NOT   tu no eres                   ARE YOU ?   eres  tu?
HE/SHE/ IT ... IS   el es             HE/SHE/IT ... IS  el no  es                        IS/SHE/IT ... IT  es el?
WE ARE   nosotros somos          WE ARE NOT     nosotros no somos     ARE WE  ?   somos nosotros ?
YOU ARE   vosotros sois          YOU ARE NOT   vosotros no sois          ARE YOU ?  sois vosotros ?
THEY ARE  ellos son              THEY ARE NOT  ellos no son               ARE THEY ? son ellos ?


FORMA  AFIRMATIVA  CONTRAIDA          FORMA  NEGATIVA CONTRAIDA


                         I’ M              yo soy                                                          I’M NOT   yo no soy
                     YOU’RE      tu eres                                                         YOU AREN’T  tu no eres
             HE’S/SHE’S/IT’S   el es                                                  HE/ SHE/ IT ... ISN’T  el no es
                     WE’RE        nosotros somos                                          WE AREN’T  nosotros no somos
                    YOU’RE      vosotros sois                                              YOU AREN’T  vosotros no sois
                  THEY’RE     ellos son                                                     THEY AREN’T  ellos no son

                                                                                                                      

APOSTROPHE



POSESIVOS  PLURALES

MY PARENT’S HOUSE


NOMBRES PROPIOS QUE TERMINAN EN   S

CHARLE’S
ST.JAME’S PARK
ALICE’S DOG

A LAS PROFESIONES SE LES PONE A /AN DEPENDIENDO SI EMPIEZAN POR VOCAL

HE’S  AN ENGINEER
HES A HAIRDRESSER




PLURALES DE LOS NOMBRES

A LA MAYORIA DE LOS NOMBRES SE LES AÑADE   S

BOOK..........BOOKS
STUDENT.......STUDENTS

SI LOS NOMBRES TERMINAN  EN   S   SH   CH ,
SE LES AÑADE ES  (IZ)

BUS................BUSES
CHURH ........CHURCHES
BUSH............BUSHES

SI EL  NOMBRE TERMINA EN CONSONANTE  + Y  SE CAMBIA  LA Y GRIEGA PORIES

COUNTRY.........COUNTRIES
PARTY.............. PARTIES


SI EL  NOMBRE TERMINA  EN  VOCAL + Y  NO CAMBIA


BOY.........BOYS
KEY.........KEYS

ALGUNOS NOMBRES SON IRREGULARES:


CHILD..........CHILDREN
PERSON ......PEOPLE
WOMAN .....WOMEN

TAMBIEN HAY ALGUNOS NOMBRES QUE AUNQUE SE ESCRIBAN EN  SINGULAR, TIENEN
SIGNIFICADO PLURAL.


POLICE.......POLICIA
ARMY.........EJERCITO


LA  R  SILENCIOSA


R + VOCAL = /R/................ CHILDREN
R + CONSONANTE = /R/.... SURNAME
R + NADA = /R/ .................. MOTHER




             GO (IR A)                                 PLAY(JUGAR)

              DEPORTES O ACTIVIDADES                                 DEPORTES CON PERSONAS Y/O PELOTA


                        DANCING                                                                                 FOOTBALL
                          SKIING         (TERMINACION EN ING)                               BASKET
                         DRIVING                                                                                   TENNISS                 


TERCERA PERSONA DEL SINGULAR

 HAVE..............HAS
 TEACH............TEACHES
 GO....................GOES

ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

MY ............................     MI   MIS
YOUR.........................    TU,SU (DE USTED O DE USTEDES) VUESTRO A OS AS
HIS............................      SU,SUS,(DE EL)
HER..........................      SU, SUS (DE ELLA)
ITS...........................        SU SUS  (DE ELLO)
OUR .........................     (NUESTRO,A,OS,AS
THEIR....................        THEIR SU,SUS (DE  ELLOS  O DE ELLAS)


ADJETIVOS  DEMOSTRATIVOS

THIS........................       ESTE,A,O
THAT.....................        ESE,A,O,  AQUEL,LLA,LLO
THESE..................         ESTOS,AS
THOSE.................         ESOS,AS,  AQUELLOS,AS

ADJETIVOS INTERROGATIVOS

WHAT.?.....................   QUE?
WHICH.?...................   QUE (CUAL)?
WHOSE ?.................    DE QUIEN?
HOW MUCH.?.............CUANTO?
HOW MANY?..............CUANTOS?


EL AUXILIAR “DOES"



ESTE AUXILIAR SOLO SE USA  EN PREGUNTAS,NEGACIONES O RESPUESTAS CORTAS
         
           * HE ?                                  YES SHE DOES = SI 
DOES   * SHE ?                                WHAT SHE DOES ? = QUE HACE ?
           * IT ?                              NO SHE DOESN’T  = NO

ESTRUCTURA:


AUXILIAR + SUJETO +INFINITIVO VERBO PPAL.

DOES          +      SHE          +     PLAY ?

ANTES DEL AUXILIAR  O DESPUES DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL SE PUEDE PONER PARA FORMAR LA ORACION LO QUE SE QUIERA ,PERO EL NUCLEO,NUNCA DEBE DE CAMBIAR

WHERE  DOES MARK  LIVE ?   =WHERE DOES HE LIVE  =DONDE VIVE  MARK?
WHAT DOES HE  DO ?  = QUE HACE (EN QUE TRABAJA?)

SIN EMBARGO LA RESPUESTA SERA NORMAL ,PUES SERA AFIRMATIVA(SIEMPRE QUE NO SEA RESPUESTA CORTA QUE PODRIA LLEVAR EL AUXILIAR DOES.

MARK LIVES IN BROADWAY.
HE’S A  JOURNALIST

QUE HACE EL EN SU TIEMPO LIBRE ? = WHAT DOES  HE DO  IN HIS  FREE TIME  ?

JUEGA AL TENIS =MARK PLAYS TENNIS

CUANTOS COCHES TIENE TU PADRE ? = HOW  MANY CARS  DOES YOUR FATHER HAVE
MY FATHER  HAVE (S ? ) TWO CARS

LE GUSTA A ELLA TRABAJAR  ? =  DOES SHE LIKE  WORKING ?
NO =NO SHE DOESN’T (DASSENT)
TE GUSTA COMER SPAGHETTIS = DOES  YOU EATING SPAGHETTIS LIKE


SIEMPRE:   AUX + SUJETO + VERBO PPAL.




GRAMMAR  SUMMARY



Questions with questions  words            answers

WHAT IS HER SURNAME?                                                        JANE
WHAT IS  HIS JOB?                                                                    SHE’S A POLICEMAN
WHAT IS HER ADDRESS?                                                        34,CHURCH STREET

WHERE IS  SHE FROM?                                                           PORTUGAL
WHERE ARE YOU  FROM?                                                     FRANCE
WHERE ARE THEY FROM?                                                   SPAIN

WHO IS JENNIFER?                                                              SHE’S JOHN’S DAUGHTER
WHO IS SHE?                                                                         SHE’S JOHN’S  DAUGHTER
HOW OLD IS SHE?                                                                TWENTY-TWO
HOW OLD ARE YOU?                                                           TWENTY-TWO
HOW MUCH IS A COKE?                                                    SIXTY PENCE



 Yes /No questions                Short Answers

IS HE HOT?                                                              YES,HE IS
IS SHE HOT?                                                            NO,SHE ISN’T
IS IT HOT?                                                                YES IT IS
                ARE YOU MARRIED?                                            NO  I’M NOT /NO,WE AREN’T
ARE THEY MARRIED?                                          YES,THEY ARE


Negative

I AM  NOT FROM PARIS                                       I’M NOT  FROM PARIS
HE IS NOT FROM PARIS                                       HE   ISN’T FROM PARIS
SHE IS NOT FROM  PARIS                                    SHE ISN’T FROM PARIS
IT IS NOT FROM PARIS                                         IT ISN’T  FROM PARIS
WE ARE NOT FROM PARIS                                  WE AREN’T  FROM PARIS
YOU ARE NOT FROM PARIS                                YOU  AREN’T FROM  PARIS
THEY ARE NOT FROM PARIS                              THEY AREN’T FROM PARIS

Possessive   ‘S

MY HUSBAND’S  NAME IS MARTIN
THAT’S  ANDREA’S, DICTIONARY



GRAMMAR  SUMMARY

PRESENT SIMPLE (1)


Present  simple  he,she,it

HE  LIVES IN THE MOUNTAINS
SHE LIVES IN THE MOUNTAINS
IT LIVES  IN THE MOUNTAINS

HAVE IS   IRREGULAR

SHE HAS  A DOG         NOT  SHE HAVES

Negative

HE DOES NOT LIVE IN FRANCE  = HE DOENS’T  LIVE IN  FRANCE
SHE DOES  NOT LIVE IN FRANCE = SHE DOESN’T LIVE IN FRANCE
IT DOES NOT  LIVE IN FRANCE = IT DOESN’T LIVE IN FRANCE

Questions

WHERE  DOES HE LIVE ?
WHERE  DOES SHE LIVE ?
WHERE  DOES IT LIVE ?

Yes /no  questions                                    Shorts answers


DOES HE  LIVE IN FRANCE ?                                                               YES. HE DOES
DOES SHE LIVE IN FRANCE ?                                                              NO, SHE DOESN’T.
DOES IT  LIVE IN THE MOUNTAINS?                                                 YES, IT DOES


GRAMMAR  SUMMARY


Present  simple
                                      ATENCION :   EN EL PRESENTE SIMPLE POSITIVO
POSITIVE                                               AÑADIMOS S  AL VERBO CON HE,SHE, IT;
                                                                PERO NO  CON I, YOU, WE Y THEY.
I START  AT 6.30
YOU START AT 6.30
WE START AT 6.30
THEY START AT 6.30
HE STARTS AT 6.30
SHE STARTS AT 6.30                      
IT STARTS AT 6.30

Negative

ATENCION:           CON I,YOU,WE,Y THEY EL NEGATIVO
I DON’T START  AT 6.30                                           ES  DON’T + INFINITIVO.
YOU DON’T START AT 6.30                                     CON  HE,SHE,IT  EL NEGATIVO
WE DON’T START AT 6.30                                       ES DOESN’T + INFINITIVO
THEY DON’T START AT 6.30

HE DOESN’T START AT 6.30
SHE DOESN’T START AT 6.30
IT DOESN’T START AT 6.30


Questions             ATENCION:          EL VERBO AUXILIAR EN PREGUNTAS
                                                                                     CON  I,YOU,WE,Y THEY ES DO;
WHEN DO I START ?                                               CON  HE,SHE,IT ES DOESN’T
WHEN DO YOU START ?
WHEN DO  WE  START ?
WHEN DO THEY START ?

WHEN DOES  HE START ?
WHEN DOES SHE START ?
WHEN DOES IT  START ?

Yes /no  questions                                    Short answers

DO YOU HAVE A CAMERA ?                                                 NO,I DON’T/ NO,WE DON’T
DO THEY HAVE A CAMERA ?                                               YES ,THEY DO
DOES HE  LIKE CHINESE  FOOD ?                                       YES, HE DOES 
DOES SHE  LIKE CHINESE FOOD ?                                      NO, SHE DOESN’T
DOES IT LIKE  CHINESE FOOD ?                                          YES,IT DOES


GRAMMAR  SUMMARY


ARTICLES

INDETERMINADO

A/AN=UN/ UNA(SINGULAR)

SE USA PARA MENCIONAR UNA COSA POR PRIMERA VEZ

SHE HAS A FLAT  IN LONDON
CAN I HAVE A HAM  SANDWICH ?
SHE’S A NURSE (TRABAJOS)


DETERMINADO

THE= EL,LA,LOS,LAS, (PLURAL,SING.MAS.FEM.)

SE USA CUANDO NOS REFERIMOS  A UNA COSA YA MENCIONADA ANTERIORMENTE

THE FLAT (=HER FLAT) IS VERY  NICE
THE HAM SANDWICH  IS HORRIBLE
THE TIMES (PERIODICOS)
THE THAMES,THE SENA (RIOS)


NO ARTICLES

COSAS EN GENERAL

I HAVE... TEA  AND TOAST  FOR BREAKFAST
... BOOKS ARE EXPENSIVE
I LIKE TALKING ... PHOTOGRAPHS
DO YOU LIKE ... CHINESE FOOD ?

COMIDAS , SITIOS , TRANSPORTES

I HAVE...  BREAKFAST /LUNCH/DINNER
I GO/COME ... HOME
I  GO/COME  TO ... SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY /WORK/BED
I’M AT ... WORK/ ON...HOLIDAY

GRAMMAR  SUMMARY



ADVERBS OF FRECUENCY

0%                                                   50%                                                          100%
NEVER               SOMETIMES                OFTEN            USUALLY                                  ALWAYS


SOMETIMES &USUALLY

SE PUEDEN COLOCAR EN CUALQUIER SITIO DE LA FRASE ,AL PRINCIPIO,AL FINAL , O COMO LOS DEMAS,DELANTE DEL VERBO PRINCIPAL (NO DEL Auxiliar) .

often,never & always

Siempre se colocan delante del verbo principal ( no del auxiliar)

I       NEVER       GO       TO      CINEMA

THEY  DON’T (OFTEN/ALWAYS) EAT  IN RESTAURANT’S

CON NEVER,NUNCA SE PONE DON’T,PUESTO QUE NO SE PUEDEN PONER DOS NEGACIONES JUNTAS

THEY NEVER EAT IN RESTAURANT’S



EVERY MORNING/EVENING.................. TODOS LOS DIAS /TODAS LAS NOCHES
EVERY DAY................................................ CADA DIA
EVERY FRIDAY.......................................... CADA VIERNES  
(ONCE) A WEEK........................................ UNA VEZ A LA SEMANA
(TWICE) A MONTH.................................... DOS VECES AL MES
(THREE,FOUR,FIVE...) TIMES A YEAR...TRES,CUATRO,CINCO VECES AL AÑO
ABOUT ONCE A WEEK.............................. ALREDEDOR DE UNA VEZ A LA SEMANA
 
PREPOSITIONS

IN, ON, AT, TO, BY, NEAR, WITH

AT =PARA SITIOS PEQUEÑOS (ARRIVE AT PLACE/A HOTEL/A CINEMA/A STATION
IN = PARA SITIOS GRANDES   ( ARRIVE IN A TOWN/IN A COUNTRY)


THE = SEGUIDO DE PALABRA QUE COMIENZA CON VOCAL SE PRONUNCIA  DI
THE = SEGUIDO DE  PALabra QUE COMIENZA CON CONSONANTE  SE PRONUNCIA DE





REWRITING A TEXT

Keiko Wilson is japanese.But Keiko lives in New York because Keiko is married to an American.Keiko is a interpreter.Keiko likes New York because  New York is interesting,but Keiko husband,Walter,doesn’t like New York.Walter wants to leave  and live in the country.

Keiko and Walter have two children.Walter the two children and the two children’s dog  out of the city in Walter’s free time.Walter and the children go walking in summer and skiing  in winter,but Keiko doesn’t go with Walter and the children because  Keiko doesn’t have any free time.


Keiko Wilson is japanese.But she lives in New York because she is married to an American.She is an interpreter.She Likes New York because it is interesting.but her husband,Walter doesn’t like it .he wants to leave and live in the country.

They have two children.He takes them and their dog out of the city in his free time.
They go walking in summer and skiing in winter.But she doesn’t go whith them .because she doesn’t have any free time




PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVES ADJECTIVES


PETER                  DRIVES             A CAR

EL SUJETO VA DELANTE DEL VERBO     EL VERBO     EL OBJETO DE DETRÁS DEL VERBO




PRONOMBRES SUJETO                  PRONOMBRES OBJETOS             ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

I                     YO                                                ME       MI                                     MY           MIO
YOU              TU                                                YOU     TU                                     YOUR      TUYO
HE                 EL                                                HIM      SU DE EL                        HIS          SUYO      
SHE               ELLA                                          HER     SU DE ELLA                   HER        SUYA        
IT                   ESTO                                           IT          ESTO                                ITS           ESTOS
WE                NOSOTROS                                US         NOSOTROS                   OUR        NUESTROS
THEY            ELLOS                                        THEM  ELLOS                            THEIR     SUYOS



GRAMMAR  SUMMARY
UNITS 1 TO 4 , RESUME(I)
                                                                        TO BE

AFIRMATIVO                                  CONTRAIDO                          INTERROGATIVO

I Am                                                      I’m                                            Am I?
You are                                            You’re                                    Are You?
He/She/It/...Is                                  He’s/She’s/Its                     Is...He/She/It?
We Are                                               We’re                                     Are we?
You are                                             You’re                                   Are you?
They Are                                           They’re                                Are They?

                      NEGATIVO                                       NEG.CONTRAIDO
 
                      I AM NOT                                                  I’M NOT
                      YOU ARE NOT                                         YOUREN’T
                      HE/SHE/ IT                                               HE/SHE/IT...ISN’T
                      WERE ARE NOT                                     WE AREN’T
                      YOU ARE NOT                                        YOU AREN’T
                      THEY ARE NOT                                      THEY AREN’T

                                      IS HE HOT?                  YES HE IS
                                      IS SHE HOT?                NO SHE  ISN’T
                                      IS IT HOT?                    NO IT ISN’T

EL AUXILIAR DOES

SOLO SE USA EN PREGUNTAS,NEGACIONES O RESPUESTAS CORTAS

AUXILIAR + SUJETO + VERBO PRINCIPAL

WHERE DOES MARK LIVE?   MARK LIVES IN BROADWAY
WHAT DOES HE DO?                 HE’S A JOURNALIST

PREGUNTAS                    NEGACIONES                    RESPUESTAS CORTAS

DOES HE?                          NO HE DOESN’T                 YES HE DO
DOES SHE?                        NO SHE DOESN’T               YES SHE DO
DOES IT?                            NO IT DOESN’T                    YES IT DO
                     
ADJETIVOS

ADJ.POSESIVOS              ADJ.DEMOSTRATIVOS          ADJ.INTERROGATIVOS

MY          MIO                               THIS     ESTE                                 WHAT?      QUE?
YOUR     TUYO VUESTRO        THAT    ESO                                  WICH?       CUAL?
HIS          SU (MASC.)                  THESE  ESTOS                             WHOSE?   DE QUIEN?
HER        SU (FEM.)                    THOSE  ESOS                               HOW MUCH?  CUANTO?
IT’S         SU (NEUTRO)                                                                       HOW MANY?  CUANTOS?
OUR        NUESTRO
THEIR    SUYOS (MASC. Y FEM)


GRAMMAR  SUMMARY
UNITS 1 TO 4 , RESUME (II)

PLURALES DE LOS NOMBRES


A LA MAYORIA SE LES AÑADE  S
SI LOS NOMBRES TERMINAN  EN S,SH,CH.SE LES AÑADE ES
SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA  EN CONSONANTE + Y;SE CAMBIA Y POR IES
SI EL NOMBRE TERMINA EN VOCAL + Y;NO CAMBIA Y SE LE AÑADE S
  

LA R SILENCIOSA


R + VOCAL = SE PRONUNCIA
R + CONSONANTE = NO SE PRONUNCIA
R + NADA (FINAL) = NO SE PRONUNCIA

ARTICULOS

INDETERMINADO: A/AN        UN/UNA SINGULAR
SE USA PARA MENCIONAR UNA COSA POR PRIMERA VEZ


DETERMINADO:THE     EL,LA,LOS,LAS (Plural,singULAR,MASC. Y FEMENINO)
SE USA  CUANDO NOS REFERIMOS A UNA COSA YA  MENCIONADA.TAMBIEN LLEVAN THE, LOS PERIODICOS Y LOS RIOS.


NO ARTICULOS

NO  LLEVAN ARTICULO
 LAS COSAS “EN GENERAL”LAS COMIDAS ,LOS LUGARES Y LOS TRANSPORTES


I HAVE...TEA
...BOOKS ARE EXPENSIVE
I LIKE TAKING ...PHOTOGRAPHS
DO YOU LIKE...CHINESE FOOD?




I HAVE ...BREAKFAST/DINNER/LUNCH
i GO/COME...HOME
I GO/COME...SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY/WORK/BED
I GO/COME BY...TRAIN/CAR/BUS/TAXI





there is                 hay un/una
                                                                                    there es el sujeto
there are            hay varios



forma positiva

there’s a sofa (there is)       singular
there are  two books             plural


forma negativa

there  isn’t an armchair      singular
there arent any flowers    plural


forma interrogativa

is there a table ?                        singular
are there any photos?            plural


( any se pone con plural )



short answers

positivo singular................yes,there is
positivo plural ................... yes,there are

negativo singular............. no,there isn’t
negativo plural.................  no there arent






Some / any

 


                                                                           oraciones  afirmat. plurales
                                                      some
numeros indefinidos                           oraciones negativ. plurales
                                                       any
                                                                             preguntas plurales


are there any  ?
are any ?



directions

excuse  me ,is there a bookshop .... near here ,please ?
where is the bookshop ?


respuestas
with prepositions


·         go straight on.................siga recto
·         on the left......................... a la izquierda
·         on the right...................... a la derecha
·         take the firs/second... street on...........tome la 1ª,2ª.....calle a
·         turn left..............................tuerce a la izquierda
·         turn right.......................... tuerce a la derercha
·         go past..................................  PASAR DE LARGO
·         TO CROSS...............................  CRUZAR
·         CROSSROADS.......................  CRUCE DE CAMINOS
·         ICE RINK................................  PABELLON DE PATINAJE
·         ROUND ABOUT....................   ROTONDA                             








PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS DEMOSTRATIVOS
(MASCULINO,FEMENINO Y NEUTRO)


THIS /THAT/ THESE/ THOSE/


THIS  (ESTO/A)SINGULAR..............CERCA DE NOSOTROS
THAT( ESE/A,ESO/A,AQUEL,AQUELLO/A)SINGULAR...LEJOS DE NOSOTROS


THESE (ESTOS/ESTAS)PLURAL ...CERCA DE NOSOTROS
THOSE (ESOS/AS,AQUELOS /AS)PLURAL...LEJOS DE NOSOTROS




                


CAN/COULD     WAS /WERE

VB PODER Y SABER                   VB SER  Y ESTAR (PRESENTE  SIMPLE )
 


CAN...PRESENTE                                          WAS......PASADO
COULD... PASADO                                        WERE .......PASADO


CAN ES UN VERBO  MODAL, NO LLEVA INFINITIVO (TO)

 


                ABILITY= SABER HACER ALGO
CAN
                PERMISSION=PERMISO PARA HACER ALGO 









CAN


FORMA AFIRMATIVA:

SUJETO + CAN + VERBO PRINCIPAL 
  I CAN DANCE



FORMA NEGATIVA:
 


                                                               CANNOT (+FORMAL)
I,YOU,WE...+ CAN + CAN NOT                                          + VERBO EN INFINITIVO
                                                                CAN’T (+INFORMAL)


SUJETO + CAN’T + VERBO PRINCIPAL
I CAN’T  DANCE


FORMA INTERROGATIVA:

Can +  sujeto + verbo principal  ?
can you play the piano?

 


                                                      afirmativa: yes, i  can
respuestas cortas
                                                       negativa : no,i can’t
  










PRESENT  TO BE  IN THE PAST

PAST SIMPLE TENSE

POSITIVO
(ERA)

I WAS                  YO FUI                YO ESTUVE
HE WAS              EL FUE                EL ESTUVO
SHE WAS            ELLA FUE          ELLA ESTUVO
IT WAS                ESTO FUE          ESTO ESTUVO
WE WERE           NOSOTROS FUIMOS   NOSOTROS ESTUVIMOS
YOU WERE         TU fuiste   TU estuviste
VOSOTROS FUISTEIS VOSOTROS ESTUVISTEIS
THEY WERE        ELLOS FUERON ELLOS ESTUVIERON

NEGATIVO
(ERA)

I WASN’T           YO NO FUI           YO NO ESTUVE
HE WASN’T       EL NO FUE            EL NO ESTUVO
SHE WASN’T     ELLA  NO FUE      ELLA NO ESTUVO
IT WASN’T        ESTO NO FUE        ESTO NO ESTUVO
WE WEREN’T    NOSOTROS NO FUIMOS   NOSOTROS NO ESTUVIMOS
YOU WEREN’T  TU NO fuiste      TU NO ESTUVISTES
VOSOTROS NO FUISTEIS  VOSOTROS NO ESTUVISTEIS
THEY WEREN’T ELLOS NO FUERON    ELLOS NO ESTUVIERON

INTERROGATIVO

WAS I AT CINEMA?      FUI YO AL CINE ?
WAS HE AT CINEMA?   FUE EL AL CINE?
WAS SHE  AT CINEMA  FUE ELLA AL CINE?
WERE WE AT CINEMA? FUIMOS NOSOTROS AL CINE?
WERE YOU AT CINEMA FUISTEIS TU/VOSOTROS AL CINE?
WERE THEY AT CINEMA  FUERON ELLOS AL CINE?

SHORT ANSWERS

YES,SHE WAS
NO, SHE WASN’T
YES,THEY WERE
NO, THEY WEREN’T


CAN        PAST SIMPLE TENSE     = COULD



POSITIVO EN PASADO

I COULD                     YO PUDE
YOU COULD              TU/VOSOTROS PUDISTEIS
HE/SHE /IT COULD   EL/ELLA/ESTO/ PUDO
WE COULD                 NOSOTROS PUDIMOS
THEY COULD            ELLOS PUDIERON


NEGATIVO  EN PASADO

I COULDN’T                   YO NO PUDE
YOU COULDN’T            TU/VOSOTROS NO PUDISTEIS
HE/SHE/IT COULDN’T  EL/ELLA/ESTO NO PUDO
WE COULDN’T               NOSOTROS NO PUDIMOS
THEY COULDN’T           ELLOS NO PUDIERON


INTERROGATIVO EN PASADO

COULD I?                       YO PUDE?
COULD YOU?                TU/VOSOTROS PUDISTEIS?
COULD HE/SHE/IT?       EL/ELLA/ESTO PUDO?           
COULD WE?                    NOSOTROS PUDIMOS?
COULD THEY?                ELLOS PUDIERON?

+ INFINITIVO SIN TO














PAST SIMPLE

REGULAR AND IRREGULARS VERBS


DEPENDIENDO de cómo SE FORMA EL PASADO ,SE SABE SI LOS VERBOS SON REGULARES O IRREGULARES;ASI PUES LA NORMA GENERAL ES:

SI EL PASADO ES EL INFINITIVO + ED, SON VERBOS REGULARES

EJ.   EARN     EARNED
START   STARTED

LA TERMINACION ED ES IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS


EXCEPCION:CUANDO EL INFINITIVO TERMINA EN E SOLO SE LE AÑADE LA  D      EJ.    DIE    DIED

LA PRONUNCIACION ES CASI IGUAL,SOLO QUE SE HACE UN ESPECIAL ENFASIS SOBRE LA D FINAL.







EN LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES,NO HA Y NORMAS.ESTAN CONSTRUIDOS
TAL Y COMO ESTAN Y HAY QUE APRENDERSELOS DE MEMORIA:
EJ.COME =CAME         BUY    BOUGHT

EL PASADO DE LOS IRREGULARES,TAL Y COMO PASABA CON LOS REGULARES ,ES IGUAL PARA TODAS LAS PERSONAS.










QUESTIONS AND NEGATIVES

DID


ES EL PASADO DE   DO Y  DOES

DID YOU GO TO CINEMA YESTERDAY?
YES ,I DID
NO,I DIDN’T


CUANDO ESTUDIABAMOS EL AUXILIAR  DO/ DOES,VEIAMOS QUE CUANDO ESTE LLEVABA S  (DOES ), EL VERBO PRINCIPAL NO LA LLEVABA;

ASI PUES CON EL  PASADO DE DO/DOES=DID,PASA IGUAL: AL LLEVAR  DID LA D,EL VERBO PRINCIPAL  NO LA LLEVA

DID YOU LIVED IN ENGLAND?

SONIDOS  DEL PASADO:

     /T/                               /d/                              /ID/

LOOKED                                  DIED                                  VISITED
LIKED                                       LOVED                              STARTED
FINISHED                                MOVED                             NEEDED

EL PRIMERO ES  SORDO,EL SEGUNDO ES SONORO ,Y APENAS HAY DIFERENCIA;

PERO EL TERCERO /ID) SI QUE HAY QUE HACERLO NOTAR






EJEMPLOS:

DID YOU KNOW THAT  VINCENT VAN GOGH SOLD ONLY TWO  OF HIS PAINTINGS WHILE HE WAS  ALIVE?
HE DIDN’T SELL...


DID YOU KNOW THAT  THE ACTRESS SHIRLEY TEMPLE WAS  A MILLIONAIRE  BEFORE SHE WAS  TEN?  
 SHE WANS’T MILLIONAIRE...


DID YOU KNOW SHAKESPEARE  SPELLED HIS NAME  IN ELEVEN DIFFERENT WAYS
I DIDN’T KNOW THAT SHAKESPEARE...


DID YOU KNOW IN 1979 IT SNOWED IN THE SAHARA  DESERT?  
 IT DIDN’T KNOW THAT SNOWED ....


DID YOU KNOW THAT KING LOUIS XIV  OF FRANCE  HAD A BATH  ONLY THREE  TIMES IN HIS LIFE?                       
      HE DIDN’T HAVE MORE THAN THREE  BATHS ...

DID YOU KNOW THAT  THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT GEORGE WHASHINGTON  GREW MARIJUANA IN HIS GARDEN?

I DIDN´T KNOW THAT....
















TIME EXPRESSIONS
 


                                 MONTHS
                                 YEAR
IN                             PART OF THE DAY
                                 SEASONS
                                 CENTURIES  

                                 DAYS
ON                           DATES
                                 WEEKENDS

 


                                 TIME
AT                            WEEKENDS
                                  NIGHT


NÚMEROS ORDINALES:

¨      THE FIRST
¨      THE SECOND
¨      THE THIRD
¨      THE FOURTH
¨      THE  FIFTH
¨      THE SIXTH
¨      THE SEVENTH
¨      THE EIGHTH
¨      THE NINTH
¨       
¨      THE ELEVENTH
¨      THE TWELFT
¨      THE THIRTEENTH
¨      THE TWENTIETH
¨      THE FOURTIEH


WERE WHEN YOU BORN?
 EL 03.04.1992
THE THIRD OF APRIL NINETEEN NINETY  TWO



LIKE  AND WOULD LIKE   SOME AND ANY

I WOULD=I’d


I WOULD LIKE (M E GUSTARÍA) 

i’d like a drink
you’d like a drink
he’d like a drink
she’d like a drink
it’d like a drink
we’d like a drink
they’d like a drink


 


                                                                sin s final
nombres incontables              sin articulo
                                                                masa y liquidos

 


                                                                con s al final
nombres contables                  con articulo 
                                                                pueden llevar número

 


                              en frases afirmativas
some                  can i have? (peticiones interrogativas)
                              would you like? (ofrecimientos interrog.)



 


                               en preguntas y frases negativas
any                      en frases negativas (exc.peticiones e                                           
                                    Interrogaciones que van con some)                   
                              y nombres en plural   


how much?   con nombres incontables (cuanto/cuanta)
how many?    con nombres contables (cuantos cuantas)


CAN I?         PUEDO YO?
CAN YOU?      PUEDES TU?
COULD i?    PODRÍA YO?
COULD YOU?     PODRÍAS TU?
I LIKE    ME GUSTA
I WOULD(I´d) like     me gustaría


preguntar en pasado o negaciones:

“did+subjet+infinitIvo sin to”



comPARATIVES ADJECTIVES


FAST                                     SLOW
SMALL                                 BIG
CLEAN                                 DIRTY
SAFE                                     DANGEROUS
QUIET                                  NOISY
OLD                                      MODERN/YOUNG
HALTHY                              UNHEALTHY
FRIENDLY                          UNFRIENDLY
INTERESTING                   BORING
EXPENSIVE                                   CHEAP
GOOD                                   bad


1.      the city is more expensive than the country
2.      the country is cheaper than the city
3.      the city is noisier than the country
4.      the country is safer than the city
5.      the city is more interesting than the country
6.      the country is healthier than the city
7.      the city is better than the city

solo  en casos excepcionales  y muy coloquiales,se emplea el more + el superlativo “er” (more better) . normalmente se usa uno u otro.




Formacion  del comparativo y del superlativo

existen dos maneras de formar el comparativo y el superlativo:

·         añadiendo al positivo –er para el comparativo y –est para el superlativo

1.      TODOS LOS MONOSILABOS:
TALL                           TALLER                             THE TALLEST
LONG                          LONGER                            THE LONGEST
SHORT                        SHORTER                          THE SHORTEST
OLD                              OLDER                                THE OLDEST
SAFE                            SAFER                 THE SAFEST

2.   LOS BISILABOS TERMINADOS EN –Y,-ER,-LE,-OW:
      HAPPY                          HAPPIER                            THE HAPPIEST
      NOISY                            NOISIER                             THE NOISIEST                               
DIRTY                         DIRTIER                             THE DIRTIEST                               

MODIFICACIONES:

LOS TERMINADOS EN –E  SOLO SE LES AÑADE –R Y –ST PARA EL COMPARATIVO Y EL SUPERLATIVO:NICE  NICER  THE NICEST

LOS TERMINADOS EN –Y PRECEDIDA DE CONSONANTE TRANSFORMAN LA Y GRIEGA EN I LATINA:DRY  DRIER  THE DRIEST.

LOS TERMINADOS  EN CONSONANTE SIMPLE PRECEDIDA DE UNA SOLA VOCAL DE SONIDO BREVE,DUPLICAN LA CONSONANTE:

BIG    BIGGER      THE BIGGEST
HOT  HOTTER     THE HOTTEST
THIN  THINNER   THE THINNEST

Anteponiendo al positivo la palabra more (más) para el comparativo y the most(el que más) para el Superlativo.
(PARA ADJETIVOS CON DOS O MAS SILABAS)

BORING                              MORE BORING                               THE MOST BORING
BEAUTIFUL      MORE BEAUTIFUL       THE MOST BEAUTIFUL
INTELLIGENT MORE INTELLIGENT  THE  MOST BEAUTIFUL

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

GOOD           BETTER           THE BEST
          BAD            WORSE                   THE WORST
            FAR            FARTHER        THE FARTHEST


HAVE GOT

(got indica posesion)

POSITIVE                                    POSITIVE

I HAVE A CAT                                     I HAVE GOT A CAT (I’VE)
YOU HAVE A CAT                             YOU HAVE GOT A CAT (YOU’VE)
WE HAVE A CAT                               WE HAVE GOT A CAT (WE’VE)
THEY HAVE A CAT                           THEY HAVE GOT A CAT (THEY’VE)
HE HAS A GARDEN                           HE HAS GOT A GARDEN (HE’S)
SHE HAS A GARDEN                        SHE HAS GOT A GARDEN (SHE’S)
IT HAS A A GARDEN                        IT HAS GOT A GARDEN(IT’S)

NEGATIVE                                      NEGATIVE

I DON’T HAVE A DOG                      I HAVEN’T GOT A DOG
YOU DON’T HAVE A DOG               YOU HAVEN’T GOT A DOG
WE DON’T HAVE A DOG                 WE HAVEN’T GOT A DOG
THEY DON’T HAVR A DOG                        THEY HAVEN’T GOT A DOG
HE  DOESN’T HAVE A GARAGE  HE HASN’T GOT A GARAGE
SHE DOENS’T HAVE A GARAGE   SHE HASN’T GOT A GARAGE
IT DOESN’T HAVE A GARAGE     IT HASN’T GOT A GARAGE

QUESTIONS                             QUESTIONS

DO I HAVE ANY MONEY?               HAVE I GOT ANY MONEY?
DO YOU HAVE ANY MONEY?       HAVE YOU GOT ANY MONEY?
DO WE HAVE ANY MONEY?          HAVE WE GOT ANY MONEY?
DO THEY HAVE ANY MONEY?      HAVE THEY GOT ANY MONEY?
DOES HE HAVE A SISTER?             HAS HE GOT A SISTER?
DOES SHE HAVE A SISTER?          HAS SHE GOT A SISTER?
DOES HIT HAVE A SISTER?                       HAS IT GOT A SISTER?

SHORT  ANWSER

NO,I HAVENT    YES, I HAVE    NO,SHE HASN’T   YES,SHE HAS

EN PASADO NO HAY GOT!!
HAVE=HAVE GOT / I HAVE = I’VE / I DON’T HAVE = I HAVEN’T GOT
       



HAY UNA FORMA DE COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDAD MUY COMUN:

AS...AS
(TAN/TANTO... COMO)



                      ORACIONES  AFIRMATIVAS                           ...BODY     
SOME                                   Y                                                      ...THING 
                               PREGUNTAS                                                ... WHERE         


 


                        ORACIONES NEGATIVAS
ANY               OFRECIMIENTOS Y FAVORES (EN INTERROGATIVO)
                        ORACIONES  CON EL VERBO EN NEGATIVO
                                                                EJ.THERE ISN’T ANYBODY


 


NO             CON EL VERBO EN POSITIVO
                                               EJ. THERE IS NOBODY HERE


ESTE “NO”INDICA NEGACION,ENTONCES DEBE IR EN VERBO EN  FORMA AFIRMATIVA!!      

                                                  EVERYBODY
 EVERY          ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS        EVERYTHING
                                                                                       EVERYWHERE
CUANDO EL VERBO FUNCIONA COMO SUJETO,ESTE (EL VERBO),VA EN SINGULAR Y EN TERCERA PERSONA”



EVERYONE                        TODO EL MUNDO
EVERYBODY         TODO EL MUNDO
NOBODY                  NADIE
NOWHERE              NINGUN SITIO
EVERYWHERE     EN TODAS PARTES
EVERYDAY                        TODOS LOS DIAS
EVERYTHING       TODAS LAS COSAS
NOTHING                NADA              
DIRECTIONS  (2)
ALONG                    A LO LARGO
DOWN                       HACIA ABAJO
UP                              HACIA ARRIBA
INTO                        HACIA DENTRO
OUT OF                    HACIA FUERA
OVER                                  POR ENCIMA
PAST                       PASAR JUNTO A
THROUGH            ATRAVESAR
UNDER                 POR DEBAJO DE



Present continous


El presente continuo,se forma de la siguiente manera:

verbo ser(en  presente simple)+ verbo en infinitivo + ing

ejemplo :     i am +work+ ing  =  i’m working

El presente continuo, expresa un hecho o una accion en curso: AHORA!

FORMACION :

terminados el infinitivo en E:
cambia e por ING

come     coming    /     smoke    smoking

VERBOS CORTOS CON UNA SOLA VOCAL
(consn vocal consn),          
   REPITE LA ULTIMA CONSONANTE :

RUN    RUNNING    /     SIT   SITTING    /    SWIM    SWIMMING

HAY QUE APRENDERSELOS DE MEMORIA:

LIE   LYING     /     DIE    DYING

LOS TERMINADOS EN Y : SE LES AÑADE ING

STUDY    STUDYING   /    PLAY    PLAYING








Present continous

SHE’S HAVING A SHOWER IN THE BATHROOM

WE ARE EATING A SANDIWCH IN THE KITCHEN

SHE’S WRITING TO HER MOTHER IN THE LIVING ROOM

WE ARE  MAKING A TEA IN THE KITCHEN

HE’S READING A BOOK IN THE LIVING ROOM

THEY ARE CLEANING THESE TEETH IN THE BATHROOM

I’M LISTENING TO MUSIC IN THE LIVING ROOM

THEY PUTTING ON THE CLOTHES IN THE BEDROOM

WE ARE PLAYING PING PONG IN THE BEDROOM

HE’S WASHING THE PLATES (OR WASHING UP) IN THE KITCHEN

LISTEN! PAT IS PLAYING THE PIANO

THEY ARE BUILDING A NEW HOTEL IN THE MOMENT

LOOK! SOMEBODY IS SWIMMING IN THE RIVER

YOU STANDING ON MY FOOT.OH I’M SORRY

HURRY UP! THE BUS IS COMMING

WHERE ARE YOU,GEORGE ? IN THE KITCHEN. I’M COOKING A MEAL

HELLO.CAN I SPEAK TO ANN ,PLEASE ?  SHE’S HAVING A SHOWER AT THE
MOMENT,CAN YOU PHONE AGAIN LATER ?







QUE ESTA OCURRIENDO AHORA?

I’M NOT WASHING MY HAIR

IT IS SNOWING

I’M SITTING ON A CHAIR

I AREN’T  EATING A SANDWICH

IT ISN’T RAINING

I’M LEARNING ENGLISH

I’M NOT LISTENING

I’M NOT SMOKING A CIGARETTTE

I’M NOT  READING A NEWSPAPER


WHAT IS SHE READING ?

WHAT IS HE EATING ?

WHAT IS SHE CRYING ?

WHAT ARE THEY LOOKING ?

WHERE IS HE DOING ?

WHY ARE THEY LAUGHING ?






ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS :

LOS ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS SON LOS QUE COMO SU PROPIO NOMBRE INDICA, DENOTAN POSESION:
MY HOUSE!

ESTOS SON:
MY            MI...
YOUR       TU...
HIS            SU (DE EL)...
HER          SU (DE ELLA)...
ITS             NEUTRO PARA COSAS
OUR          NUESTRO...
YOUR       VUESTRO...
THEIR      ELLOS...

PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS:

LOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS,  TAMBIEN DENOTAN POSESION PERO  SUSTITUYEN AL NOMBRE.(EN ESTE CASO A CASA).
IT’S MINE !

ESTOS SON:


MINE        EL MIO...
YOURS     EL TUYO...
HIS            LOS SUYOS (DE EL)...
HERS        LOS SUYOS (DE ELLA)...
ITS             NEUTRO PARA COSAS
OURS        LO NUESTRO...
YOURS     LO VUESTRO...
THEIRS    LO DE ELLOS...





GOING TO  (VOY A...)

SE EMPLEA EN UN FUTURO MAS LEJANO QUE EL PRESENTE CONTINUO,

SE FORMA ASÍ:

SUBJET+VB TO BE+GOING TO+VERBO EN INFINITIVO

AFIRMATIVO:
YOU ARE GOING TO...

NEGATIVO:
YOU AREN’T GOING TO LEARN...

INTERROGATIVO
WHY IS SHE GOING TO LEARN... ?

EJEMPLOS

I’M GOING TO WATCH T.V.

I’M NOT GOING TO WATCH T.V.

I’M NOT GOING TO CATCH A BUS

I’M NOT GOING TO EAT A RESTAURANT

I’M NOT GOING TO MEET SOME FRIENDS

I’M GOING TO COOK A MEAL

I’M NOT GOING TO GO SHOPPING

I’M GOING TO WASH MY HAIR

I’M GOING TO DO MY HOMEWORK

GOING TO  (VOY A...) 2 

TAMBIEN USAMOS GOING TO,CUANDO NOSOTROS PODEMOS VER ALGO “AHORA” QUE SEGURAMENTE SUCEDERÁ EN EL FUTURO:

IT’S GOING TO RAIN=VA A LLOVER

I’M GOING TO SNEEZE=VOY A ESTORNUDAR

WE’RE GOING TO MISS THE BUSS=VAMOS A PERDER EL AUTO..

THEY’RE GOING TO HAVE A PARTY=VAN A HACER UNA ...

I’M GOING TO FAIL THE EXAM=VOY A SUSPENDER EL...

HE’S GOING TO PASS THE EXAM=EL VA A APROBAR EL...

YOU’RE ARE GOING TO DROP THE PLATES=VAS A TIRAR LOS...

THEY’RE GOING TO KISS=ELLOS VAN A BESARSE

CUANDO APARECEN LOS VERBOS TO GO Y TO COME SE USA
GOING Y COMING”

I’M GOING TO GO TO HOLLAND TOMORROW
SHE’S GOING TO COME THIS EVENING


HE WENT TO STATION TO CATCH THE TRAIN

SHE TURNED ON THE TV TO WATCH THE FILM

ARE YOU GOING TO THE PUB TO HAVE A BEER ?

DID YOU OPEN THE DOOR TO GET SOME FRESH AIR

I PHONED BILL TO TELL THE NEWS

ARE YOU LEARNING ENGLISH TO GET A BETTER JOB ?

THEY’RE STUDYING  HARD TO PASS THEIR EXAM

I’M GOING HOME EARLY TO FINISH MY HOMEWORK
  


ULTIMAS ANOTACIONES DEL CURSO


What  WAS THE WEATHER LIKE IN.... QUE TIEMPO HACE EN....

IT WAS SUNNY AND WARM.18 DEGREES CELSIUS

I’M  agree.....ESTOY DE ACUERDO

I DON’T AGREE....NO ESTOY DE ACUERDO

I THINK SO ....... PIENSO QUE SI

I DON’T THINK SO.....PIENSO QUE NO

I GONNA= I’M GOING TO

I WANNA= I WANT YOU



TO  =  HACIA (MOVIMIENTO)
                                                                   HOME
                                                                   WORK
T  =  HACIA           (ESTATICO)           SCHOOL
                                                                    UNIVERSITY      

 


                                                                          RESTAURANTES                      
                   AT – LUGARES PEQUEÑOS   CASA                               
ARRIVE                                                          TRABAJO...
                                                                          CIUDADES          
                    IN – LUGARES GRANDES     
                                                                          PAISES  




futuro

PRESENTE CONTINUO:

COSAS QUE VAN A SUCEDER INMEDIATAMENTE,POR EJEMPLO LAS COSAS QUE SE APUNTAN EN UNA AGENDA:
I’M MEETING HER TOMORROW

GOING TO:

FUTURO ALGO MAS LEJANO Y COSAS QUE VEMOS “AHORA”Y QUE VAN A SUCEDER:
IT GOING TO RAIN

WILL=I’WILL=I’LL:
ESPRESA UN FUTURO CON DECISION!   I’LL+INFINITIVO SIN TO
I’LL RAIN !


SHALL:

ES UN VERBO AUXILIAR QUE SE USA PARA SUGERENCIAS:SE USA EN PREGUNTAS+ SUJETO EN 1ª PERSONAL +INFINITIVO SIN TO.
WHAT SHALL WE DO?   QUE PODEMOS HACER?

















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